Tuesday, January 15, 2008

The Trojan Women

The Trojan Women was a Greek tradgedy written by Euripides, a Greek philosopher. Euripides was openly opposed to the Peloponnesian war. His pacifism lead to him writing the play as a propaganda piece.

The Melos Massacre

In 416 B.C. the Athenians were attempting to expand the boundries of their empire. They put their sights on Melos, a neutral city-state. The Athenians tried to convince Melos that it was in best intrest for both parties as Athens would protect Melos. They also claimed that because Athens was stronger than Melos they should rule over them by the law of the Gods. Melos felt threatened by this and chose to side with Sparta and ask them for support. In retaliation, Athens slaughtered every man in Melos. Because of this many other neutral city-states alligned with Sparta.

Friday, January 11, 2008

Summary of the War

The Peloponnesian War (431 B.C.)

By 431 B.C. the Spartans Government believed that the Athenians were becoming power hungry, and eager to take control of mainland Greece. Because of this the Spartans delclared war on the Athenians and marched to take land. The believed that they could fight a land war as they outnumbered the Athenians and had great experience and success with ground wars. The Athenians believed, however, that they could fight a naval war and succeed by destroying Sparta's allies. Both sides believed that they could force the other to surrender through these tactics.

After ten years of the fighting going nowhere, both sides agreed to a fifty year peace know as the Peace of Nicias. Nicias was and Athenian General and politician that pulled off the truce and temporarily ended the fighting in the area. Both sides would keep territories and assets that they had aquired.

However, in 415 B.C. Nicias convinced the Athenians to attack the city-states on the island of Sicily. in 413 B.C. the attack turned into a dismal failure as the Athenian navy was badly beaten and many soldiers were killed or captured. Seizing the opportunity the Spartans attacked the Athenians and were joined by the Persians in doing so. The Athenians fought through it until 405 B.C. when most of their navy was abliterated in a surprise attack. In 404 B.C. the Athenians were forced to surrender and their Empire was destroyed.